Monday, July 1, 2013

Kinds Of Electronic Filters

Electronic filters vary in how they function.

Electronic filters vary in how they function based on the signal frequencies they are designed for, but each filter has the same basic function, which is to either select or reject certain frequencies of a signal. You can divide most filters into four categories, high pass, low pass, bandpass and bandstop; however, filters are also used to reduce harmonics and to shape electrical wavelengths before they are converted into signals.

Band Reject Filter

Band reject filters allow you to select what frequencies to allow to pass through a circuit and what frequencies to reject. Band reject filters are used to reduce interference in audio signals.

Bandpass Filter

Bandpass filters are used to limit the frequency of a signal to a particular band, such as the radio frequency (RF) band or the wireless local loop (WLL) band. Bandpass filters are most commonly used in broadcast communication devices but have also been adopted for use by measuring and signal processing devices.

BAW Filter

Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters are used to limit high frequencies in the several hundred megahertz to several gigahertz range. BAW filters are most commonly used in high frequency devices like cellular phones.

EMI and RFI Filters

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters are used to prevent electromagnetic noise from entering or escaping a system. These filters are commonly placed on the input power lines of electronic equipment to prevent EMI from damaging equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) filters are used to reduce electromagnet interference in the radio frequency.

Harmonic Filters

Harmonic interference is generated by non-linear electrical loads passing through electrical lines. Non-linear loads are commonly generated by computer, power rectifiers and uninterrupted power supplies. Harmonic filters are used to reduce the amount of harmonic distortion that is fed into power mains. Harmonic filters are required to be incorporated into all power systems by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard 519.

High- and Low-Pass Filters

A high-pass filter is used to reduce the amount of low frequencies in a signal whereas low-pass filters reduce the high frequencies. High-pass filters route low frequency noise to the ground through an inductor or limit it with a capacitor while low-pass filters use inductors for reduction or capacitors routed to the ground. High-pass filters are commonly used when a signal passes through two amplifying stages. In these cases, high-pass filters serve to reduce the offset between the two stages of amplification. Low-pass filters are commonly used to protect components from sudden high frequency spikes.

SAW Filter

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters use piezoelectrical crystals or ceramic to convert electrical signals into mechanical signals. This conversion is most commonly required in applications that use the radio frequencies up to three gigahertz, including wireless networking.

Waveguide Filters

Waveguide filters operate at very high frequencies and are required for all microwave communications. Waveguide filters are used to shave electrical waves before they are converted to signals. This shaping is necessary for broadband full duplex wireless communications.

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