Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Calculate Hybridization

Calculate Hybridization

Hybridization is the combination of two different atomic orbitals. Atomic orbitals describe the path that an electron takes around the nucleus of an atom. Electrons normally travel in a regular pattern around the atom, but when two atoms combine to form a molecule this electron path changes shape. Hybridization calculations are an attempt to explain the source of these changes in atomic orbitals and predict what the shape of the molecule formed will be.


Collect Data on the Electrons Present in the Molecule

1. Determine which atom is the central atom of the molecule. The central atom is always the most negatively charged atom in the molecule that is neither a halogen nor hydrogen.

2. Determine how many monovalent atoms surround this central atom. A monovalent atom is one that combines with only a single atom to form a molecule.

3. Determine how many valence electrons this central atom has. The valence electrons are the electrons on the outer most shell of the atom.

4. Determine the exact cationic and anionic charges of the entire molecule. Cationic and anionic charges describe the overall positive or negative charge of an atom, with cationic representing the positive charges and anionic representing the negative charges.

Calculate the Hybridization Orbitals

5. Add together the number of monovalent atoms surrounding the central atom and the number of valence electrons surrounding the central atom.

6. Add the units of cationic charge to the sum from the previous step.

7. Subtract the units of anionic charge from the sum of the previous two steps.

8. Locate the resulting number in the following chart. The expression to the right of the number is the hybridization of your molecule.







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